Karkemish is one of the most important capital cities in the ancient Near East. Already attested in the Ebla texts (c.2300 BC), Karkemish became the seat of the Hittite viceroy and then of a local dynasty which flourished until the Assyrian conquest in 717 BC and the Babylonian destruction in 605 BC. Stone-built monuments lavishly decorated with sculptures, Luwian hieroglyphic inscriptions and more than 20m-high city walls attest to the power of the town. In Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine times, the site was a provincial city (impressive surface remains date from these later periods). First excavated between 1911 and 1920 by a British Museum expedition led by C.L. Woolley and T.E. Lawrence of Arabia (their excavation house can still be visited at the site), since 2011 Karkemish has been newly explored by a joint Turco-Italian Archaeological Expedition.